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node.js shell command execution

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[前端(javascript) 所属分类 前端(javascript) | 发布者 店小二03 | 时间 2018 | 作者 红领巾 ] 0人收藏点击收藏

I am still trying to grasp the finer points of how I can run a linux or windows shell command and capture output within node.js ; ultimately, I want to do something like this...

//pseudocode output = run_command(cmd, args)

The important piece is that output must be available to a globally scoped variable (or object). I tried the following function, but for some reason, I get undefined printed to the console...

function run_cmd(cmd, args, cb) { var spawn = require('child_process').spawn var child = spawn(cmd, args); var me = this; child.stdout.on('data', function(me, data) { cb(me, data); }); } foo = new run_cmd('dir', ['/B'], function (me, data){me.stdout=data;}); console.log(foo.stdout); // yields "undefined" <------

I'm having trouble understanding where the code breaks above... a very simple prototype of that model works...

function try_this(cmd, cb) { var me = this; cb(me, cmd) } bar = new try_this('guacamole', function (me, cmd){me.output=cmd;}) console.log(bar.output); // yields "guacamole" <----

Can someone help me understand why try_this() works, and run_cmd() does not? FWIW, I need to use child_process.spawn , because child_process.exec has a 200KB buffer limit.

BOUNTY AWARD

I tried the first answer with no success so far...

// run my shell command function run_cmd(cmd, args, cb) { var spawn = require('child_process').spawn var child = spawn(cmd, args); var me = this; child.stdout.on('data', function(data) { cb(me, data); }); } // Run C:\Windows\System32\netstat.exe -an foo = new run_cmd('netstat.exe', ['-an'], function (me, data){me.stdout=data;}); app.listen(3000); console.log('Express app started on port 3000'); console.log(foo.stdout); // <----- Still yields 'undefined' The bonus will be awarded to the person who can correct what is wrong with my existing code, such that I can call foo = new run_cmd('netstat.exe', ['-an'], function (me, data){me.stdout=data;}); and receive the output in foo.stdout (in the global variable scope). Final Resolution

I'm accepting James White's answer, but this is the exact code that worked for me...

function cmd_exec(cmd, args, cb_stdout, cb_end) { var spawn = require('child_process').spawn, child = spawn(cmd, args), me = this; me.exit = 0; // Send a cb to set 1 when cmd exits me.stdout = ""; child.stdout.on('data', function (data) { cb_stdout(me, data) }); child.stdout.on('end', function () { cb_end(me) }); } foo = new cmd_exec('netstat', ['-rn'], function (me, data) {me.stdout += data.toString();}, function (me) {me.exit = 1;} ); function log_console() { console.log(foo.stdout); } setTimeout( // wait 0.25 seconds and print the output log_console, 250);

Problem courtesy of: Mike Pennington

Solution

There are three issues here that need to be fixed:

Firstis that you are expecting synchronous behavior while using stdout asynchronously. All of the calls in your run_cmd function are asynchronous, so it will spawn the child process and return immediately regardless of whether some, all, or none of the data has been read off of stdout. As such, when you run

console.log(foo.stdout);

you get whatever happens to be stored in foo.stdout at the moment, and there's no guarantee what that will be because your child process might still be running.

Secondis that stdout is a readable stream , so 1) the data event can be called multiple times, and 2) the callback is given a buffer, not a string. Easy to remedy; just change

foo = new run_cmd( 'netstat.exe', ['-an'], function (me, data){me.stdout=data;} );

into

foo = new run_cmd( 'netstat.exe', ['-an'], function (me, buffer){me.stdout+=buffer.toString();} );

so that we convert our buffer into a string and append that string to our stdout variable.

Thirdis that you can only know you've received all output when you get the 'end' event, which means we need another listener and callback:

function run_cmd(cmd, args, cb, end) { // ... child.stdout.on('end', end); }

So, your final result is this:

function run_cmd(cmd, args, cb, end) { var spawn = require('child_process').spawn, child = spawn(cmd, args), me = this; child.stdout.on('data', function (buffer) { cb(me, buffer) }); child.stdout.on('end', end); } // Run C:\Windows\System32\netstat.exe -an var foo = new run_cmd( 'netstat.exe', ['-an'], function (me, buffer) { me.stdout += buffer.toString() }, function () { console.log(foo.stdout) } );

Solution courtesy of: James White

Discussion

You're not actually returning anything from your run_cmd function.

function run_cmd(cmd, args, done) { var spawn = require("child_process").spawn; var child = spawn(cmd, args); var result = { stdout: "" }; child.stdout.on("data", function (data) { result.stdout += data; }); child.stdout.on("end", function () { done(); }); return result; } > foo = run_cmd("ls", ["-al"], function () { console.log("done!"); }); { stdout: '' } done! > foo.stdout 'total 28520...'

Works just fine. :)

Discussion courtesy of: Chris Eineke

I had a similar problem and I ended up writing a node extension for this. You can check out the git repository. It's open source and free and all that good stuff !

https://github.com/aponxi/npm-execxi

ExecXI is a node extension written in C++ to execute shell commands one by one, outputting the command's output to the console in real-time. Optional chained, and unchained ways are present; meaning that you can choose to stop the script after a command fails (chained), or you can continue as if nothing has happened !

Usage instructions are in the ReadMe file . Feel free to make pull requests or submit issues!

I thought it was worth to mention it.

Discussion courtesy of: Logan

@TonyO'Hagan is comprehrensive shelljs answer, but, I would like to highlight the synchronous version of his answer:

var shell = require('shelljs'); var output = shell.exec('netstat -rn', {silent:true}).output; console.log(output);

Discussion courtesy of: Stephen Quan

There's a variable conflict in your run_cmd function:

var me = this; child.stdout.on('data', function(me, data) { // me is overriden by function argument cb(me, data); });

Simply change it to this:

var me = this; child.stdout.on('data', function(data) { // One argument only! cb(me, data); });

In order to see errors always add this:

child.stderr.on('data', function(data) { console.log( data ); });

EDITYou're code fails because you are trying to run dir which is not provided as a separate standalone program. It is a command in cmd process. If you want to play with filesystem use native require( 'fs' ) .

Alternatively ( which I do not recommend ) you can create a batch file which you can then run. Note that OS by default fires batch files via cmd .

Discussion courtesy of: freakish

A simplified version of the accepted answer (third point), just worked for me.

function run_cmd(cmd, args, callBack ) { var spawn = require('child_process').spawn; var child = spawn(cmd, args); var resp = ""; child.stdout.on('data', function (buffer) { resp += buffer.toString() }); child.stdout.on('end', function() { callBack (resp) }); } // ()

Usage:

run_cmd( "ls", ["-l"], function(text) { console.log (text) }); run_cmd( "hostname", [], function(text) { console.log (text) });

Discussion courtesy of: cibercitizen1

Synchronous one-liner:

require('child_process').execSync("echo 'hi'", function puts(error, stdout, stderr) { console.log(stdout) });

Discussion courtesy of: Victorio Berra

I used this more concisely :

var sys = require('sys') var exec = require('child_process').exec; function puts(error, stdout, stderr) { sys.puts(stdout) } exec("ls -la", puts);

it works perfectly. :)

Discussion courtesy of: Ilyas Mimouni

Simplest way is to just use the ShellJS lib ...

$ npm install [-g] shelljs

EXEC Example:

require('shelljs/global'); // Sync call to exec() var version = exec('node --version', {silent:true}).output; // Async call to exec() exec('netstat.exe -an', function(status, output) { console.log('Exit status:', status); console.log('Program output:', output); });

ShellJs.org supports many common shell commands mapped as NodeJS functions including:

cat cd chmod cp dirs echo exec exit find grep ln ls mkdir mv popd pushd pwd rm sed test which

Discussion courtesy of: Tony O'Hagan

This recipe can be found in it's original form on Stack Over Flow .

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