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Python编程之黑板上排列组合,你舍得解开吗

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[开发(python) 所属分类 开发(python) | 发布者 店小二04 | 时间 | 作者 红领巾 ] 0人收藏点击收藏
考虑这样一个问题,给定一个矩阵(多维数组,numpy.ndarray()),如何shuffle这个矩阵(也就是对其行进行全排列),如何随机地选择其中的k行,这叫组合,实现一种某一维度空间的切片。例如五列中选三列(全部三列的排列数),便从原有的五维空间中降维到三维空间,因为是全部的排列数,故不会漏掉任何一种可能性。
涉及的函数主要有:
np.random.permutation()
itertools.combinations()
itertools.permutations()
# 1. 对0-5之间的数进行一次全排列
>>>np.random.permutation(6)
array([3, 1, 5, 4, 0, 2])
# 2. 创建待排矩阵
>>>A = np.array([[1, 2, 3, 4], [5, 6, 7, 8], [9, 10, 11, 12]])
# 3. shuffle矩阵A
>>>p = np.random.permutation(A.shape[0])
>>>p
array([1, 2, 0])
>>>A[p, :]
array([[ 5, 6, 7, 8],
[ 9, 10, 11, 12],
[ 1, 2, 3, 4]])

C52的实现

>>>from itertools import combinations
>>>combins = [c for c in combinations(range(5), 2)]
>>>len(combins)
10
>>>combins # 而且是按序排列
[(0, 1), (0, 2), (0, 3), (0, 4), (1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 4), (2, 3), (2, 4), (3, 4)]

A52的实现

>>>from itertools import permutations
>>>pertumations(range(5), 2)
<itertools.permutations object at 0x0233E360>
>>>perms = permutations(range(5), 2)
>>>perms
[(0, 1), (0, 2), (0, 3), (0, 4), (1, 0), (1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 4), (2, 0), (2, 1),
(2, 3), (2, 4), (3, 0), (3, 1), (3, 2), (3, 4), (4, 0), (4, 1), (4, 2), (4, 3)]
>>>len(perms)
20
# 5. 任取其中的k(k=2)行
>>>c = [c for c in combinations(range(A.shape[0]), 2)]
>>>A[c[0], :] # 一种排列
array([[1, 2, 3, 4],
[5, 6, 7, 8]])

下面再介绍一个列表数据任意组合,主要是利用自带的库

#_*_ coding:utf-8 _*_
#__author__='dragon'
import itertools
list1 = [1,2,3,4,5]
list2 = []
for i in range(1,len(list1)+1):
iter = itertools.combinations(list1,i)
list2.append(list(iter))
print(list2)
[[(1,), (2,), (3,), (4,), (5,)], [(1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 4), (1, 5), (2, 3), (2, 4), (2, 5), (3, 4), (3, 5), (4, 5)], [(1, 2, 3), (1, 2, 4), (1, 2, 5), (1, 3, 4), (1, 3, 5), (1, 4, 5), (2, 3, 4), (2, 3, 5), (2, 4, 5), (3, 4, 5)], [(1, 2, 3, 4), (1, 2, 3, 5), (1, 2, 4, 5), (1, 3, 4, 5), (2, 3, 4, 5)], [(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)]]

排列的实现

#_*_ coding:utf-8 _*_
#__author__='dragon'
import itertools
list1 = [1,2,3,4,5]
list2 = []
for i in range(1,len(list1)+1):
iter = itertools.permutations(list1,i)
list2.append(list(iter))
print(list2)

运行结果:

[[(1,), (2,), (3,), (4,), (5,)], [(1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 4), (1, 5), (2, 1), (2, 3), (2, 4), (2, 5), (3, 1), (3, 2), (3, 4), (3, 5), (4, 1), (4, 2), (4, 3), (4, 5), (5, 1), (5, 2), (5, 3), (5, 4)], [(1, 2, 3), (1, 2, 4), (1, 2, 5), (1, 3, 2), (1, 3, 4), (1, 3, 5), (1, 4, 2), (1, 4, 3), (1, 4, 5), (1, 5, 2), (1, 5, 3), (1, 5, 4), (2, 1, 3), (2, 1, 4), (2, 1, 5), (2, 3, 1), (2, 3, 4), (2, 3, 5), (2, 4, 1), (2, 4, 3), (2, 4, 5), (2, 5, 1), (2, 5, 3), (2, 5, 4), (3, 1, 2), (3, 1, 4), (3, 1, 5), (3, 2, 1), (3, 2, 4), (3, 2, 5), (3, 4, 1), (3, 4, 2), (3, 4, 5), (3, 5, 1), (3, 5, 2), (3, 5, 4), (4, 1, 2), (4, 1, 3), (4, 1, 5), (4, 2, 1), (4, 2, 3), (4, 2, 5), (4, 3, 1), (4, 3, 2), (4, 3, 5), (4, 5, 1), (4, 5, 2), (4, 5, 3), (5, 1, 2), (5, 1, 3), (5, 1, 4), (5, 2, 1), (5, 2, 3), (5, 2, 4), (5, 3, 1), (5, 3, 2), (5, 3, 4), (5, 4, 1), (5, 4, 2), (5, 4, 3)], [(1, 2, 3, 4), (1, 2, 3, 5), (1, 2, 4, 3), (1, 2, 4, 5), (1, 2, 5, 3), (1, 2, 5, 4), (1, 3, 2, 4), (1, 3, 2, 5), (1, 3, 4, 2), (1, 3, 4, 5), (1, 3, 5, 2), (1, 3, 5, 4), (1, 4, 2, 3), (1, 4, 2, 5), (1, 4, 3, 2), (1, 4, 3, 5), (1, 4, 5, 2), (1, 4, 5, 3), (1, 5, 2, 3), (1, 5, 2, 4), (1, 5, 3, 2), (1, 5, 3, 4), (1, 5, 4, 2), (1, 5, 4, 3), (2, 1, 3, 4), (2, 1, 3, 5), (2, 1, 4, 3), (2, 1, 4, 5), (2, 1, 5, 3), (2, 1, 5, 4), (2, 3, 1, 4), (2, 3, 1, 5), (2, 3, 4, 1), (2, 3, 4, 5), (2, 3, 5, 1), (2, 3, 5, 4), (2, 4, 1, 3), (2, 4, 1, 5), (2, 4, 3, 1), (2, 4, 3, 5), (2, 4, 5, 1), (2, 4, 5, 3), (2, 5, 1, 3), (2, 5, 1, 4), (2, 5, 3, 1), (2, 5, 3, 4), (2, 5, 4, 1), (2, 5, 4, 3), (3, 1, 2, 4), (3, 1, 2, 5), (3, 1, 4, 2), (3, 1, 4, 5), (3, 1, 5, 2), (3, 1, 5, 4), (3, 2, 1, 4), (3, 2, 1, 5), (3, 2, 4, 1), (3, 2, 4, 5), (3, 2, 5, 1), (3, 2, 5, 4), (3, 4, 1, 2), (3, 4, 1, 5), (3, 4, 2, 1), (3, 4, 2, 5), (3, 4, 5, 1), (3, 4, 5, 2), (3, 5, 1, 2), (3, 5, 1, 4), (3, 5, 2, 1), (3, 5, 2, 4), (3, 5, 4, 1), (3, 5, 4, 2), (4, 1, 2, 3), (4, 1, 2, 5), (4, 1, 3, 2), (4, 1, 3, 5), (4, 1, 5, 2), (4, 1, 5, 3), (4, 2, 1, 3), (4, 2, 1, 5), (4, 2, 3, 1), (4, 2, 3, 5), (4, 2, 5, 1), (4, 2, 5, 3), (4, 3, 1, 2), (4, 3, 1, 5), (4, 3, 2, 1), (4, 3, 2, 5), (4, 3, 5, 1), (4, 3, 5, 2), (4, 5, 1, 2), (4, 5, 1, 3), (4, 5, 2, 1), (4, 5, 2, 3), (4, 5, 3, 1), (4, 5, 3, 2), (5, 1, 2, 3), (5, 1, 2, 4), (5, 1, 3, 2), (5, 1, 3, 4), (5, 1, 4, 2), (5, 1, 4, 3), (5, 2, 1, 3), (5, 2, 1, 4), (5, 2, 3, 1), (5, 2, 3, 4), (5, 2, 4, 1), (5, 2, 4, 3), (5, 3, 1, 2), (5, 3, 1, 4), (5, 3, 2, 1), (5, 3, 2, 4), (5, 3, 4, 1), (5, 3, 4, 2), (5, 4, 1, 2), (5, 4, 1, 3), (5, 4, 2, 1), (5, 4, 2, 3), (5, 4, 3, 1), (5, 4, 3, 2)], [(1, 2, 3, 4, 5), (1, 2, 3, 5, 4), (1, 2, 4, 3, 5), (1, 2, 4, 5, 3), (1, 2, 5, 3, 4), (1, 2, 5, 4, 3), (1, 3, 2, 4, 5), (1, 3, 2, 5, 4), (1, 3, 4, 2, 5), (1, 3, 4, 5, 2), (1, 3, 5, 2, 4), (1, 3, 5, 4, 2), (1, 4, 2, 3, 5), (1, 4, 2, 5, 3), (1, 4, 3, 2, 5), (1, 4, 3, 5, 2), (1, 4, 5, 2, 3), (1, 4, 5, 3, 2), (1, 5, 2, 3, 4), (1, 5, 2, 4, 3), (1, 5, 3, 2, 4), (1, 5, 3, 4, 2), (1, 5, 4, 2, 3), (1, 5, 4, 3, 2), (2, 1, 3, 4, 5), (2, 1, 3, 5, 4), (2, 1, 4, 3, 5), (2, 1, 4, 5, 3), (2, 1, 5, 3, 4), (2, 1, 5, 4, 3), (2, 3, 1, 4, 5), (2, 3, 1, 5, 4), (2, 3, 4, 1, 5), (2, 3, 4, 5, 1), (2, 3, 5, 1, 4), (2, 3, 5, 4, 1), (2, 4, 1, 3, 5), (2, 4, 1, 5, 3), (2, 4, 3, 1, 5), (2, 4, 3, 5, 1), (2, 4, 5, 1, 3), (2, 4, 5, 3, 1), (2, 5, 1, 3, 4), (2, 5, 1, 4, 3), (2, 5, 3, 1, 4), (2, 5, 3, 4, 1), (2, 5, 4, 1, 3), (2, 5, 4, 3, 1), (3, 1, 2, 4, 5), (3, 1, 2, 5, 4), (3, 1, 4, 2, 5), (3, 1, 4, 5, 2), (3, 1, 5, 2, 4), (3, 1, 5, 4, 2), (3, 2, 1, 4, 5), (3, 2, 1, 5, 4), (3, 2, 4, 1, 5), (3, 2, 4, 5, 1), (3, 2, 5, 1, 4), (3, 2, 5, 4, 1), (3, 4, 1, 2, 5), (3, 4, 1, 5, 2), (3, 4, 2, 1, 5), (3, 4, 2, 5, 1), (3, 4, 5, 1, 2), (3, 4, 5, 2, 1), (3, 5, 1, 2, 4), (3, 5, 1, 4, 2), (3, 5, 2, 1, 4), (3, 5, 2, 4, 1), (3, 5, 4, 1, 2), (3, 5, 4, 2, 1), (4, 1, 2, 3, 5), (4, 1, 2, 5, 3), (4, 1, 3, 2, 5), (4, 1, 3, 5, 2), (4, 1, 5, 2, 3), (4, 1, 5, 3, 2), (4, 2, 1, 3, 5), (4, 2, 1, 5, 3), (4, 2, 3, 1, 5), (4, 2, 3, 5, 1), (4, 2, 5, 1, 3), (4, 2, 5, 3, 1), (4, 3, 1, 2, 5), (4, 3, 1, 5, 2), (4, 3, 2, 1, 5), (4, 3, 2, 5, 1), (4, 3, 5, 1, 2), (4, 3, 5, 2, 1), (4, 5, 1, 2, 3), (4, 5, 1, 3, 2), (4, 5, 2, 1, 3), (4, 5, 2, 3, 1), (4, 5, 3, 1, 2), (4, 5, 3, 2, 1), (5, 1, 2, 3, 4), (5, 1, 2, 4, 3), (5, 1, 3, 2, 4), (5, 1, 3, 4, 2), (5, 1, 4, 2, 3), (5, 1, 4, 3, 2), (5, 2, 1, 3, 4), (5, 2, 1, 4, 3), (5, 2, 3, 1, 4), (5, 2, 3, 4, 1), (5, 2, 4, 1, 3), (5, 2, 4, 3, 1), (5, 3, 1, 2, 4), (5, 3, 1, 4, 2), (5, 3, 2, 1, 4), (5, 3, 2, 4, 1), (5, 3, 4, 1, 2), (5, 3, 4, 2, 1), (5, 4, 1, 2, 3), (5, 4, 1, 3, 2), (5, 4, 2, 1, 3), (5, 4, 2, 3, 1), (5, 4, 3, 1, 2), (5, 4, 3, 2, 1)]]

可以根据你需要随意组合

python实现排列组合公式C(m,n)求值

# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
# 用python实现排列组合C(n,m) = n!/m!*(n-m)!
def get_value(n):
if n==1:
return n
else:
return n * get_value(n-1)
def gen_last_value(n,m):
first = get_value(n)
print "n:%s value:%s"%(n, first)
second = get_value(m)
print "n:%s value:%s"%(m, second)
third = get_value((n-m))
print "n:%s value:%s"%((n-m), third)
return first/(second * third)

if __name__ == "__main__":
# C(12,5)
rest = gen_last_value(5,3)
print "value:", rest

运行结果:

n:5 value:120
n:3 value:6
n:2 value:2
value: 10

总结

以上就是本文关于Python排列组合算法的全部内容,希望对大家有所帮助。感兴趣的朋友可以继续参阅本站:Python数据结构与算法之列表(链表,linked list)简单实现、Python算法之求n个节点不同二叉树个数等,有什么问题可以随时留言,小编会及时回复大家的。

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